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Who was Taṇhaṅkara Buddha ?

Who was Taṇhaṅkara Buddha ?
Who was Taṇhaṅkara Buddha ?
Who was Taṇhaṅkara Buddha ?
वन्दे  तण्हङ्करं  बुद्धं | Vande Taṇhaṅkaraṃ Buddhaṃ |
The Pāḷi word vande is conjugated in the first person singular from root (√ vand + a ; √ वन्द् + ) of the present tense form. Vande (वन्दे) means: I bow down, I salute, I pay homage, I am offering my respectful obeisances… Vande is a form used alone without the corresponding pronoun (I) and Vande ahaṃ (without Sandhi); (वन्देअहं). Vande’ haṃ (with Sandhi); (वन्देऽहं). Ahaṃ vande (अहंवन्दे) are form used with the corresponding pronoun (I; Ahaṃ;अहं).
The word vanda is formed by adding a (suffixe) to verbal root √ vand. Vanda (वन्द) means: to praise, to celebrate, to honor, to adore, to venerate, to salute; to pay homage, to respect,  to bow down…The word taṇhā in Pāḷi literally means “thirst,” and it is generally translated as craving or desire. Taṇhā (devanāgarī: तण्हा) is a noun of female gender. Its synonym in Sanskrit is Tṛṣṇā (Devanāgarī : तृष्णा).
Taṇhā / Tṛṣṇā is known as a principal cause in the arising of Dukkha (Pāli), (Devanāgarī: दुक्ख). Duḥkha (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: दुःख ) that Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī:सिद्धार्थगौतमबुद्ध) taught on His First Lecture: Four Noble Truths (Pāli: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Devanāgarī:चत्तारिअरियसच्चानि. Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Devanāgarī: चत्वारिआर्यसत्यानि). Taṇhā / Tṛṣṇā is known as one of the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination (Pāli: Paṭiccasamuppāda, Devanāgarī:पटिच्चसमुप्पाद. Sanskrit: Pratītyasamutpāda, Devanāgarī: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद).
 In Buddhism, there are three forms of taṇhā: Kāma-taṇhā (कामतण्हा), Rūpa-taṇhā (रूपतण्हा) or Bhava-taṇhā (भवतण्हा), Arūpa-taṇhā (अरूपतण्हा) or Vibhava-taṇhā (विभवतण्हा) and the triple poisons of taṇhā: Moha or Avijjā (Pāli), (Devanāgarī: मोह, अविज्जा). Moha or Avidyā (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: मोह,अविद्या). Lobha (Pāli), (Devanāgarī: लोभ). Rāga (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: राग). Dosa (Pāli), (Devanāgarī:दोस). Dveṣa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: द्वेष).

Kāma-taṇhā or Kāma-tṛṣṇā means: Sensual craving/desire. Rūpa-taṇhā or Rūpa-tṛṣṇā or Bhava-taṇhā (भव-तण्हा), Bhava-tṛṣṇā (भव-तृष्णा) means: Craving for existence. Arūpa-taṇhā or Arūpa-tṛṣṇā or Vibhava-taṇhā (विभव-तण्हा), Vibhava-tṛṣṇā (विभव-तृष्णा) means: Craving for non-existence or Craving for self-annihilation. Moha or Avijjā, Lobha, Dosa, mean: Ignorance, Attachment, Aversion or Confusion, bewilderment, delusion | Desire, passion, greed | Anger, aggression, hatred.

According to the declension table of Taṇhā in the feminine gender, Taṇhaṃ is its nominative singular. Taṇhaṅkaraṃ (तण्हङ्करं) or Taṇhaṃkaraṃ (तण्हंकरं) is a compound word that is made by joining two words: Taṇhaṃ (तण्हं) + karaṃ (करं). Kara (कर) is a masculine stem, ending in –a and Karaṃ (करं) is its accusative singular. Kara is an abstract noun with its compound as follow : √Kar (to do) + a (suffixe). Kara means: doing, performing, making, doer, a hand, a ray, a tax, a trunk of an elephant… Taṇhaṅkara is a masculine stem, ending in –a and it means: doing a principal cause in the arising of Dukkha.
Buddha is a masculine stem, ending in –a and Buddhaṃ is its accusative singular. Buddha is a person who has awakened to true reality and self-liberation. Taṇhaṅkara was a person who has permanently overcome anger, greed, and ignorance, by realization himself with direct knowledge and has arrived at the final exhaustion of the traces of lust (rāgavāsanā; रागवासना), the traces of hatred (dveṣavāsanā; द्वेषवासना), the traces of ignorance (avidyāvāsanā; अविद्यावासना), or the extinction of desire (rāgakkhayo; रागक्खयो) the extinction of hatred (dosakkhayo; दोसक्खयो), the extinction of illusion (mohakkhayo; मोहक्खयो).

This is an attainment types of Buddha and that why in Aṭṭhavīsati paritta (अट्ट्हवीसति परित्त), the name of the “first Buddha” as revealed by Siddhartha Gautama, was Taṇhaṅkara and people pay homage to him as the great hero in the Pāli chanting like following here : तण्हङ्करो महावीरो | Taṇhaṅkaro mahāvīro | Taṇhaṅkaro is the great hero.
Taṇhaṅkaro is a nominative singular of Taṇhaṅkara and Mahāvīro is also a nominative singular of Mahāvīra (महावीर). The word Maha (मह) or Mahā (महा) in Pāḷi and Sanskrit means: great, superior, supreme, big…The word Vīra (वीर) in Pāḷi and Sanskrit means: brave, heroic, hero, brave or eminent man, warrior, chief… Vīro (वीरो) is a nominative singular of Vīra.

Taṇhaṅkara Buddha was an universal monarch and son of King Sunandha (सुनन्ध), and Queen Sunandhā (सुनन्धा). His bodhirukka (बोधिरुक्क) or tree of enlightenment named Rukkaththana (रुक्कथ्थन). Taṇhaṅkara Buddha lived in a very long period before the time of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha.

There is a world cycle to explain that a Buddha is born only in our cosmic system and there are some particular characteristics to differentiate one Buddha from the others. Acocording to the Buddhist concepts a world cycle was divided into four sections as here:

1)Samvatta-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: सम्वत्तकप्प). Saṃvartakalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: संवर्तकल्प): Aeon of Dissolution.

2) Samvattatthāyī-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: सम्वत्तत्थायीकप्प). Saṃvartasthāyikalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: संवर्तस्थायिकल्प): Aeon of Dissolution-Duration.

3) Vivatta-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: विवत्तकप्प). Vivartakalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: विवर्तकल्प): Aeon of Evolution.

4) Vivattatthāyī-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: विवत्तत्थायीकप्प). Vivartasthāyikalpa (Sanskrit), ( Devanāgarī: विवर्तस्थायिकल्प): Aeon of Evolution-Duration.

Kalpa in Sanskrit (Devanāgarī: कल्प), Kappa in Pali (Devanāgarī: कप्प) means an inconceivably long period of time or an aeon. Kalpa is the period of time between other creation and recreation of a world or universe. There are 3 kinds of Kalpa: Antara kalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: अन्तर कल्प), Antara kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: अन्तर कप्प), (small or an interim aeon) | Asankhyeya Kalpa, (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī:असन्ख्येय कल्प), Asankheyya Kappa, (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: असन्खेय्य कप्प), (an incalculable aeon) | Maha Kalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: मह कल्प), Maha Kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: मह कप्प), (great aeon).

As the world has changed by time that marks the passage of human’s life. There are the new, the old and the truly new, the truly old in the different histories of the world. Each time when the time passes, it represents an alteration of the concept of time which helps people to move forwards and realize everything in their life with clarity and purpose.  Observation of  what determined the contents and qualities of human life in a million years ago shows that human beings grow in their knowledge and understanding of organization through real life experience and help others find more meaning and a greater sense of well-being in their lives.

Human evolution goes back millions of years ago and the march of human evolution began from the first appearance of Human ancestors who have used fire to keep warm and cook. If there is a history of human beings appearing on the earth about millions of years and we move back in time through the different aeons, we will see in our own human history had 28 Buddhas, during the course of many world cycles.

The 28 Buddhas were ordinary human beings. They are not free from the sufferings of birth, old age, sickness and death. When old age, sickness, death become an universal suffering in human life and it is an inevitable impermanence. These future Buddhas began to seek spiritual understanding and try to search how to free oneself from suffering through the everyday experiences of life and provide their practical application’s possibility of awakening wisdom and compassion which ultimately lead to liberation from suffering for all sentient beings in this universal life.

TS Huệ Dân

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