Kāma-taṇhā or Kāma-tṛṣṇā means: Sensual craving/desire. Rūpa-taṇhā or Rūpa-tṛṣṇā or Bhava-taṇhā (भव-तण्हा), Bhava-tṛṣṇā (भव-तृष्णा) means: Craving for existence. Arūpa-taṇhā or Arūpa-tṛṣṇā or Vibhava-taṇhā (विभव-तण्हा), Vibhava-tṛṣṇā (विभव-तृष्णा) means: Craving for non-existence or Craving for self-annihilation. Moha or Avijjā, Lobha, Dosa, mean: Ignorance, Attachment, Aversion or Confusion, bewilderment, delusion | Desire, passion, greed | Anger, aggression, hatred.
This is an attainment types of Buddha and that why in Aṭṭhavīsati paritta (अट्ट्हवीसति परित्त), the name of the “first Buddha” as revealed by Siddhartha Gautama, was Taṇhaṅkara and people pay homage to him as the great hero in the Pāli chanting like following here : तण्हङ्करो महावीरो | Taṇhaṅkaro mahāvīro | Taṇhaṅkaro is the great hero.
Taṇhaṅkaro is a nominative singular of Taṇhaṅkara and Mahāvīro is also a nominative singular of Mahāvīra (महावीर). The word Maha (मह) or Mahā (महा) in Pāḷi and Sanskrit means: great, superior, supreme, big…The word Vīra (वीर) in Pāḷi and Sanskrit means: brave, heroic, hero, brave or eminent man, warrior, chief… Vīro (वीरो) is a nominative singular of Vīra.
Taṇhaṅkara Buddha was an universal monarch and son of King Sunandha (सुनन्ध), and Queen Sunandhā (सुनन्धा). His bodhirukka (बोधिरुक्क) or tree of enlightenment named Rukkaththana (रुक्कथ्थन). Taṇhaṅkara Buddha lived in a very long period before the time of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha.
There is a world cycle to explain that a Buddha is born only in our cosmic system and there are some particular characteristics to differentiate one Buddha from the others. Acocording to the Buddhist concepts a world cycle was divided into four sections as here:
1)Samvatta-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: सम्वत्त–कप्प). Saṃvartakalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: संवर्तकल्प): Aeon of Dissolution.
2) Samvattatthāyī-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: सम्वत्तत्थायी–कप्प). Saṃvartasthāyikalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: संवर्तस्थायिकल्प): Aeon of Dissolution-Duration.
3) Vivatta-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: विवत्त–कप्प). Vivartakalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: विवर्तकल्प): Aeon of Evolution.
4) Vivattatthāyī-kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: विवत्तत्थायी–कप्प). Vivartasthāyikalpa (Sanskrit), ( Devanāgarī: विवर्तस्थायिकल्प): Aeon of Evolution-Duration.
Kalpa in Sanskrit (Devanāgarī: कल्प), Kappa in Pali (Devanāgarī: कप्प) means an inconceivably long period of time or an aeon. Kalpa is the period of time between other creation and recreation of a world or universe. There are 3 kinds of Kalpa: Antara kalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: अन्तर कल्प), Antara kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: अन्तर कप्प), (small or an interim aeon) | Asankhyeya Kalpa, (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī:असन्ख्येय कल्प), Asankheyya Kappa, (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: असन्खेय्य कप्प), (an incalculable aeon) | Maha Kalpa (Sanskrit), (Devanāgarī: मह कल्प), Maha Kappa (Pāḷi), (Devanāgarī: मह कप्प), (great aeon).
As the world has changed by time that marks the passage of human’s life. There are the new, the old and the truly new, the truly old in the different histories of the world. Each time when the time passes, it represents an alteration of the concept of time which helps people to move forwards and realize everything in their life with clarity and purpose. Observation of what determined the contents and qualities of human life in a million years ago shows that human beings grow in their knowledge and understanding of organization through real life experience and help others find more meaning and a greater sense of well-being in their lives.
Human evolution goes back millions of years ago and the march of human evolution began from the first appearance of Human ancestors who have used fire to keep warm and cook. If there is a history of human beings appearing on the earth about millions of years and we move back in time through the different aeons, we will see in our own human history had 28 Buddhas, during the course of many world cycles.
The 28 Buddhas were ordinary human beings. They are not free from the sufferings of birth, old age, sickness and death. When old age, sickness, death become an universal suffering in human life and it is an inevitable impermanence. These future Buddhas began to seek spiritual understanding and try to search how to free oneself from suffering through the everyday experiences of life and provide their practical application’s possibility of awakening wisdom and compassion which ultimately lead to liberation from suffering for all sentient beings in this universal life.
TS Huệ Dân